CEFR Language Levels – What do they mean?

I first came into contact with the CEFR language levels during a semester in Orléans, France. I was presented with a French placement exam to figure out my level.

The CEFR (Common European Framework for Languages) tests are produced in multiple countries. They are often referred to with different acronyms according to the language in question.

The levels are: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2, with A1 being the most elementary level and C2 corresponding to a “native” speaker’s level.

What do these levels mean?

People who take language learning seriously use these levels are used to judge a person’s language skills. I can’t say how many times I’ve met someone who tells me they are “fluent” in Spanish, but the second I ask them a simple question (“¡Muy bien! ¿Como estas?), they either refuse to respond or use grammar that is heavily flawed.

The fact is, it’s not as though you are either fluent or not fluent.

There are many levels in between. In fact, many people believe that nobody is ever really “fluent” in any language, as you can never know 100% of grammar rules and vocabulary– languages are just too complex.

Nevertheless, CEFR provides a way for people to identify themselves with levels that attempt to define language competence.

What can be done at each level?

CEFR has it’s own definitions on what each level means which are very thorough and very diplomatic. In my experience, and in the fewest words possible, here’s what they mean:

A1 Level – This is when you only know a few words and phrases. You can deal with some necessities, but you can’t really have a conversation.
A2 Level – You can have a rather simple conversation, but without a dictionary it will be uninteresting.
B1 Level – You can have real (though perhaps slow) conversation. It may take time, but you can express most things.
B2 Level – You can talk about almost anything. This is the level where you could start to legitimately claim “fluency.”

At the B2 level, you might still speak a bit slowly and need a dictionary on occasion. Usually, though, you can start to take college classes and work a job in the language with this level.

C1 LevelNot only can you talk about everything, but you also have  a good grasp of grammar. You might still sound a bit foreign, but hey… nobody’s perfect! Or are they?
C2 Level – As far as I know, nobody takes this test unless they plan to do translation (or something similar) in the language. This is above and beyond what most people ever need. It shows that not only can you speak the language, but you’ve really studied it.



[Cover photo: Paris and the Eiffel Tower as seen from the Arc de Triomphe.]

Illicit Nail Polish

My little host sister Aicha loves to draw.
She doodles, she sketches, and, above all, she really love nail polish.

This is a problem because nail polish not approved of by the Koran. At least according to her Koran teacher.

The day after my 12-year-old sister Aicha asked to paint her nails with me, her Koran teacher informed her that nail polish is bad– especially on the toes. Apparently it is expressly forbidden on the toes and not as bad (though certainly not approved of either) on the hands. So that night, Aicha went in the shower and scrubbed the brand new polish off her toes with a rough sponge.

Later, I found two pictures she drew of decorated hands (with nail polish).
The top of the first one says (in French):

“Nails not well accepted by the Muslim religion” 

and the top of the second one says:

“Even if certain people don’t like it, I love it!”

The best solution to being able to decorate her body without getting into trouble is to use henna.

Henna is a natural plant, with color varying between yellow-orange-dark orange (practically black). There aren’t any other color choices, and the color is dependent on the quality of the henna, the best henna dying the darkest.

Aicha told me (though no other sources confirm this and my Professor for the History of Islam claimed it was outright incorrect) that if you die with henna on your hands then you will go straight to heaven.
“Which is why older women like my grandmother tend to do henna a lot…they know they might die soon.”

When I asked Aicha why she didn’t do henna more often, she told me that young people don’t really like it because it’s not a very pretty color. She would probably do it more often if the henna was pink! But the only way to get pink is to use nail polish, and, of course, she can’t do that.

Aicha also likes to design clothing – both on paper and with fabrics scraps that she sews together for Maymona, a once stuffed dog now converted into … well I guess she’s a BIT more humanlike?

Maymona, by the way, is in love with Mahmoud. Mahmoud is my miniature stuffed black cat, about the size of a beanie baby. So last time the two of them got together, they made traditional Senegalese outfits.

But something else was worrying me about Aicha: she always draws on lined paper.

As the daughter of two artists, I think it’s important for kids to draw and be encouraged to express themselves through art. To do so, it’s important to have the right materials. Lined paper and an everyday yellow pencil #2 doesn’t cut it. So I decided to fix the problem. I went to the bookstore, bought a pad of big, white drawing paper, and a couple of graded hardness pencils, gave them to her and, to make it less of a gift (we were told that our host families would frown upon gifts if we didn’t approve them with our host mothers first), I asked her to make an image for my blog. This is what she drew:
Conclusion: a great image for my blog, and a happy little sister!


My Grandpa was Polygamist: Polygamy in Senegal

The tradition of polygamy in Senegal is quite interesting.

Yes, polygamy actually does exist!

When I asked my host mom about it, she told me:

“Well, I come from a polygamist family, and it worked just fine for us!”

It turns out grandpa had 4 wives. The woman I know as grandma (or yaay in Wolof) is wife #2.

With a lot of openness and sharing, they made it work out. It was one big happy family, and she considered her half brothers and sisters as true siblings who all shared 4 mothers.

My mom conceded that for many families it seems to cause a lot of problems. But that could be because they get into it for the wrong reason.
Wrong reasons might include:

  1. Finding another “better” woman and not wanting to divorce the first
  2. Taking another wife as a show of wealth
  3. Umm, etc.

“One man I knew,”

she told me,

“decided to take a second wife because he told me that he just need to make love all the time. He still loved and had a great relationship with his first wife, he just needed another woman to be completely satisfied.”

Apparently it worked out for him, too.

[Cover photo: Women in part of a women’s group searching to better their community in rural Senegal.]

Bolivia’s Hidden Gem: An Enchanting Desert of Salt

The Salar de Uyuni in Uyuni, Bolivia, is the most beautiful place I have ever visited in my life.

It is the largest salt desert in the entire world, measuring 12,000 square kilometers and containing around 90% of the world’s salt– a resource that is still pretty much untouched. One of the best things about it is that it is difficult to get to, making it a rare gem for travelers.

salar de uyuni bolivia salt beautiful

I visited the Salar de Uyuni during January of my one year stay in Bolivia as a Rotary Youth Exchange student. The Rotary Youth Exchange is a program through Rotary International that provides summer or year-long stays in foreign countries for students up to the age of 18. Luckily, this meant that I was able to take this trip with a member of Rotary as a tour guide. For those who do not have this connection, tour guides can be found throughout the cities of La Paz and Santa Cruz. A few can be found online, but the best deals must be searched out upon arrival in the country.


There is no airport in Uyuni, so the only way to get there is by bus.

We took a plane from Santa Cruz to Sucre, and then took the bus from there to Potosí. We spent one night in Potosí­ at the Hotel Avenida and then continued on to Uyuni and the Salar with our guide.

For me, the gem of the Salar de Uyuni began even before we arrived at our destination. On the outskirts of the salar we saw llamas running around and stopped to see if we could get close to them. I had never seen a llama so close to me in my life! They were everywhere; they were even walking around at a gas station!

Salar de Uyuni bolivia salt flats llamas

As we came upon the salar, it seemed like we were driving through dirty snow.

However, the longer we drove, the whiter the “snow” became until, eventually, looking around the desert becomes absolutely blinding without sunglasses. Of course, the white blanket covering the ground is actually salt! After a short while I realized that the white brilliance surrounded me in every direction! The only other colors I could see were in the cloudy blue sky.

Since the ground is white and Uyuni is at a high altitude of almost 12,000 ft, the sun’s intense UV rays reflect easily off the ground. Thus, they can burn skin from both above and below. After the trip, I would sincerely regret having forgotten my sunscreen. On a positive note, however, since everything is white as far as the eye can see, it makes for great trick-photography. I tried to take several pictures with my friends, and even though we are amateur photographers, we at least enjoyed the challenge.

Salar de Uyuni bolivia salt flats putting salt in the bag

Throughout the salt flats there are tons of little mounds of salt. I soon learned that these are created so that the salt can dry before being refined. We visited a salt refinery on the edge of the salt flats and learned about how they collect, dry, iodize, and bag the salt.

Salar de Uyuni salt in a bag sal yodada

The entire process is very rudimentary and the salt is bagged by hand—one bag at a time. Each bag is even sealed by hand using a hot flame.

We drove across the salt desert for a few hours before stopping at the Hotel de Sal Playa Blanca– a hotel made out of bricks formed from the surrounding salt.

Salar de Uyuni salt hotel

Although we did not spend the night, we did have a chance to look at the beautiful building and the international flags flying outside of it before moving on to the Isla del Pescado.


The Isla del Pescado (Fish Island) is a fish-shaped island within the “lake” of the salt desert. Since the perfect white salt had a resemblance of snow, it was spectacular to see right next to the giant 1000-year-old cacti on the island. A naturally formed coral arc can also be found on the island, and we had a great time climbing around it.

Salar de Uyuni isla del pescado cactus cacti snow salt ice

We ate llama for lunch, and when we left the island, I sat on top of the 4-wheeler as we drove across the desert.

It was absolutely gorgeous! The wind and watery salt blew in my face as we drove, coating my hair and entire body with a layer of salt. Little did I know at the time, the salt would make my sunburn hurt much worse later on.

When we finally left Uyuni, we headed to a train cemetery where tons of rusted out old train parts lay in the middle of the desert. As of yet there is no museum or guide to explain why these trains stopped their trip into Bolivia. Certainly, though, they make for a beautiful sight.

Salar de Uyuni old trains

We headed back to Potosí­ for the night in what should have been a long (but bearable) bus ride. However, thanks to mechanical problems, the bus had to stop twice so the driver could do emergency repairs. It turned into an 11-hour long painful bus adventure, complete with sore sunburns, a lack of aloe vera, and a completely filled bus—topped off with hitchhikers who slept in the aisles between the seats using our feet as pillows. I finally drifted off to sleep around 2:00 am in the morning while we were stopped for the second time, and a few hours later we finally managed to reach Potosí for the night.

Although Salar de Uyuni is undoubtedly the most beautiful place I have ever been in my life, the fact that it is so remote makes it difficult for travelers to visit. It is difficult if not impossible to book hotels and buses online, and one must be willing and able to “go with the flow” in case the bus needs emergency repairs while on the road, as ours did.

While this does make Bolivia’s salt desert a particularly difficult trip to pre-plan, it also makes it an even rarer gem.

Those who are willing to take the risk of last minute plans and an 11-hour bus ride are in for a real treat! Hopefully, though, they will plan ahead and bring sunscreen!

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